Water Resources Policies

On National Water Strategy and Policies
1.  Water policies, such as Water resources policy, Watershed management policy, irrigation policy, domestic water supply policy, and wastewater reuse policy should be formulated and implemented by water sector agencies to achieve the objectives of the National Water Strategy in Yemen.

2.  NWSA and inter-related water policies should be dealt with as the framework for all water activities in the major catchments and water basins and then for the whole country.

3.  Integrated planning and executing approach agreed upon by all concerned water entities and the stakeholders should be adopted to achieve optimization of water resources development, management, and use, and to secure sustainability of the limited resources.

4.  Basic water needs for human's life and health should be secured as 
 Water security criteria should be developed by NWRA. Additional water provided from development and demand savings should be given the priority of allocation for domestic use.
 Food security should be linked and dependent on available water resources under sustainability conditions of the resources. Expansion of irrigated agriculture should not be from limited fresh groundwater resources. It can be achieved through the adapted water balance model by using non conventional water resources and water saving techniques in irrigation surface water and in consistent with water security and rural settlement.

5.  Water resources should be utilized as an economic commodity rather than a free service, taking into consideration water impact on socio-economic development, demographic stability, and environmental protection.


On Water Resources Development
6.  Studies, investigations, and plans for development of additional conventional and non-conventional water resources should be carried out by NWRA in cooperation with other water agencies to meet the increase demand based on sustainability and feasible water utilization.

7.  Water forecasting networks and stations operated by NWRA should be updated, promoted and expanded to obtain realistic climate and hydrologic data for watersheds, particularly those which face floods and drought problems. The data is basic for watersheds management and water resources development.


On development of conventional Water Resources 
8.  Floods and streams control including reduction of soil erosion, prevention of damages to water courses, and ceasing salutation in dam reservoirs should be studied in executed in major catchment areas and expanded to cover the whole country.
 Perennial surface water streams and spring were developed and used according to old water rights.
The chances to utilize surface water is only through flood control, seasonal storage facilities, and water harvesting.
  National program for planning and building and building dams should be prepared by NWRA and MAI starting in promising watersheds and expanded for the whole country.
  Investigation using advanced methods to explore groundwater aquifers should be carried out by NWRA. Deep aquifers should be studied and the hydrogeological data and techniques available from Oil and gas investigations should be manipulated in the studies.
  Water harvesting and recharge of groundwater studies should be prepared by NWRA and implemented in cooperation with the concerned agencies. Rainfed agriculture should be encouraged to reduce supplementary irrigation.


On Development of non-conventional Water Resources
9.  Non-conventional water resources have good potential in finding new sources to face demand in some regions and for all purposes.
  Sewage treated water should be reused to replace some freshwater or expand in irrigated agriculture.
  Brackish groundwater and sea water desalination studies should be carried out by NWRA to account for new water resources to provide for future needs for industry, domestic, tourism, and possibly high value crops.


On Water Resources Management
10.  Groundwater over exploitation handled by NWRA should be   overcome through the mid-term period of implementing water resources and irrigation policies. NWRA, MAI, and water consumers should work together to face this critical problem.
 Management of irrigation schemes, particularly spate irrigation, had been presented in the irrigation policy which should be implemented in consistent with NWS and other policies and according to the approved water balance scenaries


On monitoring and control
11.  Surface and groundwater monitoring and control networks    operated by NWRA and MAI should be completed an updated in major and critical water basins. They should be expanded to cover all water basins within the mid-term duration of water resources and irrigation policies implementation.


On Demand Management
12.  Water should be allocated for all purposes according to the approved water balance scenarios. NWRA should control the allocated quantities and its quality in cooperation with the concerned water entities and according to the implementation of water policies to achieve the goals and objectives of the National Water Strategy.

13.  Water use efficiencies should be improved in order to optimize water use and to save water from irrigated agriculture and domestic use, badly needed for the pressing demand. This surplus of water will bridge large portion of the gap between supply and demand towards convenient water balance scenarios, which directly affects the socio-economic development of the country.

14.  Irrigation policy and domestic water supply policy are important   means for demand management and should be implemented in an integral manner.

15.  Domestic water supply should be extended to reach all people in the country with sound rates per capita per day enough to meet at least the basic needs, i.e., hygiene, and health.


On Water Consumers Participation
16.  Water consumers should be encouraged to participate in some construction activities and O&M of water projects.
Formation of WUAs, basins committees, and water groups are powerful means in demand management in irrigation urban and rural water supply projects.


On Water pricing
17.  Pricing of consumed water in blocks to cover  at-least O&M cost and to be used in water conservation should  be studied and gradually imposed.
 The lowest block should allow the poor people and small farmers to pay the bill of their water consumption. High income users and investors should pay the actual cost of water which includes capital, depreciation, O&M costs.
 Abstraction fees should be studied by NWRA in cooperation with other agencies in order to conserve groundwater use.


On Supply-Demand, Water Balance
18.  Supply-demand predictions and water balance scenarios should be prepared by NWRA for short-mid-and long terms. The most appropriate scenarios should be presented to the decisions makers and the stakeholders for discussions and approval to be considered the index for development, management and water use allocations for the different purposes (domestic, agriculture, industry).

A water balance scenario should be prepared by NWRA to meet water crises through drought seasons and years. Strict water rational to provide the basic and minimum requirements for all purposes should be enforced. public awareness campaigns and cooperation of all agencies and consumers is necessary to overcome these critical situations.


On allocation Priorities
On legislation and water rights
19.  Regulations to enforce the articles of water resources law and irrigation low should be prepared in the short term by NWRA and MAI respectively.

Cooperation and coordination between NWRA,MAI, and other water related agencies should be enforced to impose their roles and responsibilities in the water sector to achieve the goals and objectives of NWS and water policies according to the water resources and irrigation laws and the related regulations.

20.  Comprehensive survey and actions to organize, recognize, and document water rights in surface water resources and the right of use in groundwater aquifers should be executed by NWRA in cooperation with MAI.


On Water Markets and Transfer of Water
21.  Establishment arrangement of water markets and transfer of water among basins, sectors, or regions should be encouraged by NWRA in cooperation with other concerned agencies including water users in order to face water shortage.

 Fair water price in the water markets should be defined and fixed by NWRA. Water transfer should be practiced according to an agreed upon and justified compensation.


On Delivery and Distribution
22.  Delivery and distribution of water resources should be carried out efficiently with equitable shares according to the available and allocated quantities and quality in accordance with the water balance .
 The networks should be protected from sabotage and vandalism. Penalties should be imposed according to regulations to be prepared to enforce water resources and irrigation laws.


On Water Economics
23.  NWRA should calculate the economic value of water taking into consideration the effect of water on socio-economic development of the country. NWRA should plan and impose partial or full recovery of water cost.


On Financial and Technical support, and Investment
24.  Expenditure on water sector should be given priority with a reasonable annual allocation in the national budget  to enable NWRA and water agencies to work effectively towards optimization of water resources development, management and use.
 Donors contribution should be organized and secked according to the derived action plans for implementation of NWS and related water policies.
 Private sector investment should be encouraged to participate in water projects taking into consideration the national socio-economic development plans.


On Water Resources and Environment
On Water Resources pollution prevention
25.  NWRA should prepare and implement a national plan to protect the water resources from pollution cooperation of EPC, water agencies, and others is important in this issue.


On flood control
26.  Floods and streams  control national plan should be prepared by NWRA to increase water storage, reduce erosion of fertile soil and stop deterioration of terraces, eliminate washout of water courses and seas salutation of dams.


On over-Exploitation of Groundwater
11.  Over-exploitation of groundwater should be reduced through a program prepared and executed by NWRA and other parties.
-  Over exploitation is the reason for water quality deterioration, increase in well – pumping cost, and might lead to desertification.
-  Special attention should be given by NWRA to study and eliminate sea water intrusion in the coastal aquifers.


On Water quality
12.  Water quality specifications and standards prepared by NWRA should be completed. Regulations to enforce these standards should be adopted by NWRA and supervised with all concerned agencies including MH and EPC.


On irrigation and Environment
13.  Environmental issues related to irrigation should be tackled through implementing the irrigation policy by MAI in cooperation with NWRA, EPC, and others.


On Sewage Treated Water Reuse
14.  Sewage treated water reuse has damaging effects on water, soil, food and health.
Special attention should be given to its treatment and use in irrigated agriculture according to intentional specifications and standard and with strict control.


On Municipal and Industrial Waste
15.  Solid, liquid, Oil, and industrial wastes produced by municipalities, rural communities, hospital and medical centers, and industrial plants have dangerous to the water resources quality. It should be controlled by the concerned agencies in cooperation with NWRA.


On Water Institutions
On Governmental Institutions
16.  Roles and responsibilities in governmental institutions are practiced with over lapping, duplication, and competition.  Mandates with clear duties and tasks for all water agencies with determination on cooperation and coordination should be prepared and imposed. This is the only way to execute  NWS and water policies by facing the ter-related , sensitive, and complicated problems in an integral manner.
-Decentralization should be achieved as soon as possible and NWRA regional and water basin offices should be establish in all major or water basins within the short terms period of policy implementation.


On information and data
17.  Information data collection and desementation is week and not adequate to enable NWRA to perform its mandate for planning, control, and supervision of water resources development, management and use. NWRA should be supported in this matter
-  Water forecasting and monitoring networks and stations, data collection, formatting, analyses, and interpretation should be improved using modern equipment and advanced techniques such as flow measuring structures and devices, telemetry, land images, remote sensing, computers, etc.
-  NWRA information center should be enforced and promoted to a national data bank and documentary center for the water sector.


On Human Resources Development and Training
34.  - Comprehensive human resources development (HRD) program
-  NWRA training program should be enforced and extended to cover professional and academic training in all water issues inside and outside the country.
-  The training dams in water sector should be re-organized and supported to give chances for capacity building of all categories and levels of capabilities and positions.
-  Training curriculums should be prepared jointly
-  With the universities and contracts with international donors should be seeked to support the training program and activate it.


On Public Awareness and Conservation
18.Public awareness program executed by NWRA is an important activity to educate and equate people with water problems.
-  Public awareness should continue with a new phase concentrating on using water saving devices and conservation techniques starting in public utilities such as mosques, schools, universities hotels, hospitals, and public buildings.
-  Role of women and youth sector should be activated in public awareness. Water groups and water basins committees proposed by NWRA should be supported.
-  Water conservation in irrigated agriculture had been presented in the irrigation policy prepared by MAI and approved by the cabinet of ministers.


On Research and Transfer of Technology
19. NWRA should employ advanced methods in water resources investigations, groundwater explorations, water forecasting and monitoring and control net works and stations.
- Applied research and transfer of technology in irrigated agriculture had been presented and strongly recommended in irrigation policy.
- NWRA, MAI, and other water and water related agencies should make contracts with national, regional and international research centers and transfer of technology consultants to gain from their experience and knowledge.


On Private Sector Role and Stakeholders Participation
20.  Private sector investment in water projects should be encouraged.
- Private sector potential in adoption modern farm irrigation methods and green-houses horticulture had been presented in the irrigation policy.
- Private sector participation in O&M of large water supply projects should be studied by NWRA and NWSA.
- Stakeholders should be involved in planning, demand management, allocation priorities, and public awareness action plans and programs.



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